2.8 Common Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs

The following inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs are central to understanding the project management process framework PMBOK® Guide, this course, and PMP®[1] exam is based on.  Make sure you know these terms before you move to the next chapter.

Common/Key Inputs

Organizational Process Assets (OPAs):

Organizational process assets, as the term asset implies is the collection of guidelines, knowledge basis, templates, policies and procedures, and processes specific to and utilized by the performing organization.  They are collection of any organizational asset that can be used to manage and control the project.  Organizational process assets can be grouped into two categories:

  • Processes and procedures:

The organizational processes and procedures for managing projects include but are not limited to:

  • Initiating and Planning process groups:
    • Guidelines and know-how for tailoring the existing organizational processes and procedures to satisfy the project’s unique requirements
    • Specialized organizational standards such as policies (e.g., project management policies, information security policies, recruiting policies, …), product and project life cycles (e.g., EPC, Agile, …), quality policies and procedures (e.g., checklists, process improvement methodologies, …)
    • Project and product management templates (e.g., WBS, risk register, RFP, Earned Value Management calculators, …)
  • Executing, Monitoring & Controlling process groups:
    • Change control processes including the guidelines on how the performing organization policies, procedures, and documents can be modified as well as how change requests for the project will be reviewed, approved and validated.
    • Financial control procedures and templates such as time and expense reporting forms, time and expenditure review guidelines, accounting codes, and contractual obligations and provisions.
    • Issue and defect identification, tracking, and resolution templates, controls, and guidelines.
    • Organizational communication standards and requirements (e.g., communication technologies available to different employees, record storage and dissemination policies and infrastructures, authorized communication media, information and intellectual property protection policies and guidelines).
    • Procedures and process flows for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorizations.
    • Risk control assets such as risk categories, risk assessment templates, probability and impact thresholds and matrices.
    • Standardized work instructions and guidelines, proposal evaluation criteria, and work performance measurement criteria.
  • Closing process group:
    • Project or phase closure guidelines, templates and requirements (e.g., final project audit, product test and validations, project evaluations, recording lessons learned and historical information to organizational knowledge basis).
  • Corporate knowledge base:

The organizational knowledge base for storing and retrieving information includes, but is not limited to:

  • Configuration management knowledge basis storing all versions and baselines of project documents, policies and procedures, and organization standards.
  • Financial information such as labor, material, and machinery cost from previous projects, operations, and contracts.
  • Historical information and project lessons learned knowledge repositories (e.g., project initiation and closure information and documents from previous projects, previous project performance, quality, and risk management information).
  • Issue and defect management databases containing issue and defect status, resolution, and action items.
  • Product and project process measurement and management databases used to facilitate execution of project tasks and measurement of project performance.
  • Project files from previous projects, examples include triple constraint (cost, scope, and schedule) baselines, project schedules and calendars, risk registers and action plans, and performance report templates.

Organizational Process Assets is an input to 38 out of the 47 project management processes.  It is an input to all Planning processes except for Collect Requirements [Knowledge Area: Scope] and Plan risk responses [Knowledge Area: Risk].

Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs):

Are “conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio[2]” Examples are organization structure, geographic distribution of resources and available human resources to the project, government or industry standards, company personnel administration and work authorization systems, project management information systems, stakeholder risk tolerances, market conditions, ….

Enterprise Environmental Factors is an input to 27 of 47 project management processes.  Enterprise Environmental Factors is an input to 27 of the 47 process of which 20 are from the 22 planning processes.  Whenever Enterprise Environmental Factors is an input, Organizational Process Assets is also an input (the opposite is not necessarily true).

The paradigm behind introduction of these two inputs (Organizational Process Assets and Enterprise Environmental Factors) to the project management framework is that the project management framework and the project management plan, execution, controlling, and closing should be tailored to its surrounding environment and make use of the existing information, templates, tools, and methods available within the host organization related to project management.  Consider the following two examples:

  • Jane is a project manager with Company A. This Company has very well documented standardized project management policies with year-round training and support, and a well-structured archive of past projects minutes of meetings, lessons learned, Microsoft Project files, progress reports, WBSs, and integrated templates for every project management knowledge area [Organizational Process Assets defined].  The Company is projectized, and a strong collaborative work behavior is encouraged by senior management.  Project sponsors provide full support for their projects, and due to the repetitive nature of the work done by the company; stakeholders are well known and their requirements are usually encapsulated with high degree of precision in the beginning phases of the project leading to less rework and higher chances of success. [Enterprise Environmental Factors defined]
  • Joe is a project manager with Company B. The Company is going through a massive takeover of two companies one in Europe and one in USA.  Even though there is a PMO office, it offers services only to its parent division.  The company has adopted a loose interpretation of the Agile Methodology and no central structure for storage of templates, tools, lessons learned, and other similar assets exist. [Organizational Process Assets defined].  The industry of the company is heavily regulated and the takeover has made it even more so for Company B.  Most projects involve a diverse set of stakeholders across the globe and project managers due to the hierarchical structure of the Company don’t enjoy much senior management support. [Enterprise Environmental Factors defined]

As you can clearly see adoption of the project management framework would not be the same in these two organizations.  This dependency on the host environment and the set of assets (tools, templates, policies, etc.) for project management is manifested through these two inputs present in most project management processes.

Project Management Plan:  Is “the document that describes how the project will be executed monitored, and controlled.[3]”  The project management plan is an input to 23 of the 47 project management processes.  Many confuse the collection of WBS, network diagram, risk registers, RACI charts, and Gantt charts with the project management plan. The main output of the planning process group is the project management plan which is the blueprint that in the executing process group is used to create the project’s end result as well as carrying the work of the project itself.

The main role of the monitoring and executing process group is to compare the work done with the project management plan and to its baselines (scope, schedule, and cost performance) and adjustments are made either to changes to the project management plan or the work performed.  As such project management plan is one of the most critical elements of the project management framework, and is comprised of subsidiary plans modeled closely to the knowledge areas (i.e., scope management plan and requirements management plan from scope management knowledge area, risk management plan from risk management knowledge area, etc.).

This loop behavior is illustrated through the following elements:

  • Each disciplined-based knowledge area (i.e., all knowledge areas except integration management knowledge area) has a specialized planning component named after them (e.g., communications management plan, procurement management plan, etc.)
  • The Develop Project Management plan “Outputs from other processes” which integrates the above mentioned plans in the master project management plan. This integration is both at a physical level (content management, archiving, version controlling, etc.) as well as updating other knowledge area project management plans as change in one plan will often require tailoring others.
  • The “Develop Project Management Plan” has an output “Project Management Plan” and this output refers to the [master] project management plan made of the specialized management plans mentioned above and every time the overall collection of them is updating, modified, and re-processed through the “Develop Project Management Plan”
  • Some of the processes in the Executing and Monitoring & Controlling project management process groups have an output “Update Project Management Plan” and this refers to cases were the plan is found to be in need of change (additions, modifications, deletions, etc.). This update process too triggers the “Develop Project Management Plan” as well.

The monitoring and controlling group compares the execution with project management plan and baselines and takes corrective action to conform to the project management plan when deviations from the project management plan are noticed

Common/Key Tools and Techniques

Expert Judgment: Is “judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.[4]”  Expert Judgment is a tool and technique for 28 of the 47 processes (19 in the planning process group; initiating and executing each with 2, and monitoring & controlling with 4, and one in the closing process group) in the project management framework.

Project managers are generalists with expertise in all knowledge areas of project management. Many project managers are promoted from technical roles and as such have a strong background in the projects’ service/product (e.g., a seasoned programmer/analyst is an expert in design and development of software solutions) but are not necessarily skilled in the disciplines of project management (cost management, schedule management, risk management, etc.), as such they tend to spend most of their time on technical details of the project’s product rather than on project management.  In this context, project managers should incorporate expert judgment from subject matter experts (SMEs).  Subject matter expert are those that possess specialized skills and knowledge in their field through education, experience, or training.  Subject matter experts can be found in associations, functional units of organizations (e.g., cost accounting division), consulting firms, and subcontractors.

Meetings: It is hard to imagine management without meetings, especially with virtual teams and in today’s competitive business environment where the manager has to coordinate a diverse group of employees and stakeholders and get more done with less.    Nine planning processes and five of the eleven monitoring and controlling processes have meetings as one of their tools and techniques.

Analytical Techniques: Are “various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.[5]

Configuration Management System: Is “a subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes.[6]

Variance Analysis: Is “a method for resolving the total variance in the set of scope, cost, and schedule [triple constraints] variables into specific component variances that are associated with defined factors affecting the scope, cost, and schedule variables.[7]”  The role of the monitoring and controlling process group is to compare planned versus realized project and product work and steer the direction of the project towards its goals. Variance Analysis is a tool and technique in Control scope [Knowledge area: Scope], Control schedule [knowledge area: Time], Control cost [Knowledge area: Cost]—refer to triple constraints, and Report performance [Knowledge area: Communications] to broadcast and communicate variations.

Project Management Information System (PMIS): Is “an information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.[8]”  PMIS has two important functions:  1) To keep track of information produced, documentation, and work done, and 2) Containing the Configuration Management System which is the system for scope control and management.

Work Authorization System (a member of PMIS): Is “a subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence. It includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations.[9]”  Work Authorization System is employed to have the right action item is implemented at the right time by the right resource.

Common/Key Outputs

Updates:  Due to the iterative nature of project management processes (Progressive Elaboration as well as Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle[10]) many of the project management plan outputs are updates to elements of the project management plan, project documents, inputs and outputs from other processes, the organizational process assets (i.e., you’ve created a new asset to found shortcomings in an existing one and are documenting your findings).

Most process outputs as updates are in the monitoring and controlling process group which is line with the nature of this process group and the role updates fulfill (from comparison of plan and action the need to update elements will arise).  The following updates are the most common ones in the project management process framework:

  • Project Management Plan updates: Either in the planning process groups, executing, or monitoring and controlling process groups additions, modifications, or deletions will be applied to the project management plan to keep it updated, progressively expand and complete it, or adjust it to reflect changes in the requirements.
  • Project documents updates: Project management plan has already been covered.  In addition to project management plan all other documents are categorized as project documents.   Reports (such as performance reports, earned value reports), minutes of meetings, memorandums, requirements documentation and any documents that define the product, activity lists and attributes, registers (risk, stakeholder), logs,  change requests, project schedule and quality standards all belong to the project documents category and not the project management plan.  As a rule of thumb, project management plan is the blueprint for the execution and control of the project, whereas project documents are supporting documentation produced in higher volume and frequency than those of the project management plan.
  • Organizational Process Assets updates: Through the project management framework processes you either discover new Organizational Process Assets, have to modify its entries/catalogue, or remove elements previously defined from your documentations for Organizational Process Assets.
  • Change Request: Is “a formal proposal to modify any document, deliverable, or baseline.[11]” Due to the iterative nature of the project management process framework execution of the project management plans will need to be changed to bring future work results in line with the plans (corrective action), or make changes to avoid a problem (prevention action).  Change requests are managed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.  Change requests can be raised because the client has new requirements, one or more of the triple constraints for the project have changed, a key resource has left the organization, regulatory requirements have changed, and any other reason that would require an adjustment to the components of the project management plan.
  • Project Scope Baseline: A baseline is “the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.[12]” Project Scope Baseline includes WBS [“A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.[13]”]. WBS is the skeleton and backbone which ties different subsidiaries of the project management plan together (see the knowledge areas highlighted on the left side of the table 2-6) and has to be approved by stakeholders, and kept updated and communicated on a constant basis.  In the following graph you will see the processes that depend on Project Scope Baseline AND WBS directly OR INDIRECTLY

dependency of processes on project scope baseline

[1] PMP is a registered trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

[2] Source: Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013

[3] Source: Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013

[4] Source: Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013

[5]-75 Source: Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013

[10] The triple constraints and the PDCA are the foundation for this course.  For more information on the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) see: http://www.balancedscorecard.org/TheDemingCycle/tabid/112/Default.aspx

[11]-78 Source: Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013

[13] Source: Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) –Fifth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013

2.8. Chapter 2 Exam

 

1. Which one of the following statements about WBS is correct?

 

A) The lowest level of WBS is called task
B) WBS is short for Work Breakdown System
C) WBS is one of the most important artifacts of the project management framework and is a critical input for to the creation of the schedule, management of scope, and budget control
D) The project team can not use a WBS from past projects as each project is a unique endeavor

 

2. Which one of the following is true regarding your competitors?

 

A) Competitors should be considered as stakeholders of your project as they have don’t have a vested interest in the project
B) Competitors shouldn’t be factored in the stakeholder analysis as they bet against the success of the project
C) Competitors shouldn’t be counted as project stakeholders as there is no direct line of communication with them
D) Competitors can be considered as stakeholders if you can establish a line of information exchange with them

 

3. Which one of the following knowledge area listing is not correct?

 

A) Scope, Budgeting, Communications
B) Risk, Procurement, Scope
C) Integration, Human Resource, Quality
D) Time, Scope, Quality

 

4. Which one of the following is not a feature of a project?

 

A) A project is constrained by one or more of the triple constraints
B) In functional organizations projects are labeled as operations and in projectized organizations labeled as projects
C) Projects are planned, executed, monitored and controlled, and closed
D) Project management processes iteration can be explained by the PDCA cycle
5. Which one of the following statements is true?

 

A) The framework for which this course is based on advocates a waterfall project management approach
B) The project manager spends most of her time in planning process since 20 of the 42 processes of the project management process framework belong to the process group
C) Each process in the project management process group is executed once and revisited only if the project has more than one phase
D) Project management processes are executed iteratively and as many times needed during the project life cycle
6. You were promoted to project manager from lead software analyst and as your first assignment you are tasked to create a forecasting module to be accessible to your company’s salespeople across the globe.  You have no background in statistics or sales forecasting and need the cooperation of experts from the sales department. You need cooperation from sales and marketing departments but haven’t had much luck in winning their support as they are more concerned with their own day to day priorities and your project is the last on their list.

 

What type of organization do you work in?

 

A) Functional
B) Weak matrix
C) Projectized
D) Balanced matrix

 

7. Which one of the following statements about expert judgment is correct?

 

A) Expert judgment is the most frequently references tool and technique in the project management process framework
B) Expert judgment refers only to consultants and senior subject matter experts (SMEs).
C) The project manager has to be an expert in the field of the product of the project.
D) Expert judgment is one of the least used tools and techniques in the project management process framework

 

8. Disadvantages of matrix organizations are which one of the following?

 

A) Duplication of organization functional units/job functions
B) Two-boss syndrome
C) Increased potential for conflict between functional and project managers
D) Increased administrative overhead

 

9. Which one of the following statements is true?

 

A) In a functional organization project managers rarely have conflict with functional managers
B) In strong matrix organizations the project manager and functional managers have low to moderate levels of authority
C) In strong matrix organizations project managers and functional managers rarely have conflicts
D) In a balanced organization project managers have a moderate level of authority

 

10. Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

A) PMBOK® Guide should be applied to projects based on the project size, organizational structure, and project characteristics
B) Triple constraints are time, cost and quality
C) PMBOK® Guide is a project management methodology
D) Historical information is the same as lessons learned

 

11. Which one of the following is NOT true regarding the project sponsor?

 

A) Project sponsor is one of the most important stakeholders of any project
B) Project sponsor is a manager with higher authority than project manager and overseas the project
C) Project sponsor can be functional manager, part of the Project Management Organization (PMO), or a non-related department to the one carrying the project
D) Project sponsor has to have sufficient technical knowledge in the area of the product of the knowledge or she/he won’t qualify for the role

 

12. Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

A) Organizational process assets is referred to factors from the organization that influence the project’s success
B) Enterprise environmental factors is referred to the collection of tools, systems, and infrastructures companies have for managing projects
C) Organizational process assets is referred to the collection of tools, systems, and infrastructures companies have for managing projects
D) Enterprise environmental factors is referred to factors unique to enterprise and multinational corporations
13. Which one of the following statements is true about projects, programs, and portfolios

 

A) Both portfolios and programs are primarily concerned with the strategic goals of the organization
B) Portfolio managers manage both operations and programs, and operations
C) Portfolios can’t have direct lines to individual projects.  The only way to include projects in portfolios is to reach them through programs
D) Portfolios are made of programs and can’t include other portfolios

 

14. Which one of the following statements about updates in the project life cycle is correct?

 

A) Updates relate to the Check and Act parts of the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle
B) Change is a fact of life and unavoidable.  The most important thing for a project is to quickly assess change requests and update the project plan in formal or informal ways; which ever is best suited to the urgency of the request
C) Only the project manager and/or the project sponsor have the authority to approve and apply changes to the project management plan
D) Since creating the project management plan, PMIS, Configuration Management System, and other key planning infrastructures take a lot of time and effort from the project manager and her team they are deliberately not updated much during the project life cy

 

15. Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

A) Work performance information is a managerial term for project management software reporting
B) Work performance information is loosely defined as the collection of all project information collection and dissemination of information
C) Only formal work performance reports can be considered as part of the work performance information
D) Work performance information is the aggregated analysis of work performance data
16. In what type of organization the influence of a project manager is at its lowest?

 

A) Functional
B) Weak matrix
C) Strong Matrix
D) Projectized
17. You just joined a multi national corporation (MNC) as a project manager and have been assigned a project to identify the top 10 products in the corporates Far East offices and introduce them to the US market.  Which one of the following courses of action should you take?

 

A) Ask for more authority from your manager so that you can get better reception and cooperation from Far East and US offices
B) Hire a consulting firm with extensive experience introducing Far East products in the US market
C) Study the organizational structure of your corporate and gain a deep understanding of your role’s level of authority
D) The project is too large for a new project manager, negotiate with your project sponsor to reduce its scope

 

18. Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

A) Predictive life cycle is the best choice for projects with very high cost of change in requirements during execution
B) Iterative project management life cycle is best suited for projects that require flexibility in execution and can easily accodomate change requests
C) Predictive life cycle is adopted when the project team is under pressure to deliver exactly as planned by senior management
D) A project has adopted the adaptive project life cycle when in each iteration a full-blown version of the product of the project is released (like Microsoft Office versions)
19. You are managing a project for improving the user friendliness of a pharmacy chain corporate website.  What is your role in this organization?

 

A) You are the IT functional manager as you are responsible for all IT projects
B) You are the operation manager of the Web development unit as web services are your responsibility
C) You are the portfolio manager as the corporate website is of strategic importance to your organization
D) You are a project manager because you are undertaking a unique assignment that is not part of the day-to-day and routine operations of your organization
20. Which one of the following statements is NOT true?

 

A) Project management administrative staff in balanced matrix organizations are full-time
B) Project managers in projectized organizations have high to almost total authority and access to resources
C) In strong matrix organizations the project manager controls the project’s budget
D) In weak organizations functional managers control the project’s budget

 

21. Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

A) Project management plan is made of project management plan, risk register, and project baselines
B) Project management plan is a formal document that details how the project is to be executed, monitored and controlled.
C) The project management created in the beginning of the project will remain largely unchanged except for major scope, cost, and schedule changes
D) For most projects there is no such thing as project management plan, the project acts upon weekly management review meetings
22. What are the project management process groups?

 

A) Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing
B) Initiating, Planning, Executing and Controlling, Monitoring, Closing
C) Feasibility study, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, Closing
D) Initating, Planning, Execution, Monitoring and Controlling, Closure
23. Ray was recently promoted to production manager and successfully introduced a best-selling windshield product to the market.  The VP in charge of production has asked him to continue producing this product and report to his office on a quarterly basis.  Is this assignment considered a project?

 

A) Yes, it is a project as it had a definite end and the product was new to the company
B) No, it can not be considered a project as even though it has a clear start date and is a unique product it does not have an end date
C) Yes, it can be considered a project as Ray is heavily utilizing the concepts and techniques in the PMBOK®[1] Guide
D) No, it can not be considered a project as Ray integrated the project work into his division’s operations

 

24. In a functional organization who should the project manager approach for getting human resources for her project?

 

A) Project sponsor
B) Her own immediate manager
C) The immediate functional manager in charge of the requested resource
D) Talk directly to the resource and bypass her manager altogether
25. Which statement is true?

 

A) The only knowledge area that has processes in all five process groups (initiating, planning, executing, monitoring & controlling, and closing) is the project integration management
B) In order to gain the most benefit from the project management process framework you must execute all processes and every input, tool and technique, and output they have
C) Most processes in the project management process groups belong to one knowledge area and one process group
D) A project management knowledge group is a collection of processes from the project management process framework that are executed in the same project phase
26. Ray has been promoted from senior engineer to production manager and his first major task is to spearhead the design, development, and introduction to market of a new windshield product.  Which one of the following answers is correct?

 

A) This assignment can not be considered a project as windshield is not a unique product of Ray’s company
B) This assignment can be considered a project since Jay is managing the creation and introduction of a new product
C) This assignment cannot be considered a project as it is taking place in the context of the day-to-day operations of the plant and has no start and end date
D) This assignment can be considered a project because it is the first time Jay is managing such an assignment

 

27. Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

A) Progressive elaboration is the same as rolling wave analysis
B) Project stakeholder influence increases as the project progresses through its life cycle
C) Progressive elaboration means that plans are improved and made more detailed as more information becomes available
D) Project cost and schedule baselines are set at the beginning of the project and can’t be changed for the duration of the project management
28. Which one of the following options is correct?

 

A) Only in large projects it pays off to identify stakeholders beyond the customer of the project
B) Early identification of project stakeholders increases the chance of the project success
C) Project manager and her team should focus first and foremost on creating the product of the project.  Identifying and interacting with stakeholders will happen as the project progresses through its life cycle
D) Stakeholders are the same as shareholders
29. In your organization all software projects go through analysis, design, development, testing, and deployment.  What are these stages?

 

A) They are project process groups
B) They are parts of the product life cycle
C) They are project phases
D) They are neither product nor project phases
30. Which one of the following statements is true?

 

A) Project managers in a functional organization are part-time project managers with limited authority and resource availability
B) Project managers in balanced matrix organizations are part-time project managers with limited resource availability
C) Project managers in a strong matrix are full-time project managers with high to almost total authority and access to resources
D) Project managers in a weak-matrix are part-time project managers with limited authority and access to resources

[1] PMBOK is a registered trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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